August 30, 2015

Miss World-Guyana to host Lime Miss Black San’ Swimsuit Pageant in St Kitts

Reigning Miss World-Guyana, Rafieya Husain is currently in St Kitts and Nevis to host the 2015 LIME Miss BLACK SAN’ Swim Suit Pageant.
Miss World-Guyana was invited to participate in the 5th ‘Black San’ Bang-a-Lang’ festival by a community based organisation known as Sandy Pointers Inspiring Real Improvement Throughout (SPIRIT) Miss Worldwhich opened its doors in 2009 in Sandy Point.
Rafieya is honored to have been invited and noted her praise for the level of commitment to community service and the work accomplished by SPIRIT since its establishment, especially since she is very passionate about giving back to her country—Guyana.
“In Guyana, I have been able to launch my ‘ I COMMIT TO’ bracelet to spread the message of hope. I was also successful in establishing an empowerment center and founded the RIVAH (Rafieya’s International Vision and Hope) website which provides resources for empowerment, prevention, education and advocacy,” she stated.
She added that she is very enthusiastic about begin part of the well renowned Black San’ festival specifically for the LIME Miss black San’ swimsuit pageant as the host. This pageant is one of the largest events of the ‘Black San’ Bang-a-Lang’ festival in Sandy Point, St Kitts and Nevis.
Pageant Coordinator, Treasa Wyatt  noted that Rafieya would be an inspiration to aspiring young women. “We know that she would definitely be an inspiration to these young and aspiring women and especially since the publication of her being dubbed “Bombshell’s Women of Substance” in the Guyana Chronicle. In addition to this, her platform “violence against children’ is extremely impressive.”
The Guyanese beauty says she is looking forward to the opportunity to work alongside the Federation’s Ministry of Gender Affairs to help push the ‘Blue Bear’ campaign, especially since she is integrally involved in educating young people in Guyana about domestic violence and recognizing early signs. “I hope that my trip will help to inspire women across the federation of St. Kitts and Nevis,” she noted.
While in St Kitts and Nevis the Rafieya is expected to conduct school visits to speak to students about her platform, television and radio interviews and also host the swimsuit pageant which is slated for March 29th, 2015.

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Industry and water

Water, like air is an invaluable resource to life on Earth. It is a multipurpose resource used in the home, factories, mining and agriculture. Water can also be used to provide electricity and is a significant transportation “highway” for many people and goods. The competing uses of water make it necessary to manage and monitor our water resources.

Ironically, the very activities that need water, often contribute towards lowering the quality of our water resource. In this article we look at two water intensive activities in our country namely mining and agriculture and how they can impact water quality.


Mining is an important economic activity for our country. This activity requires large amounts of water and changes the quality of the surrounding water bodies.

Mining requires clearing of land the use of various chemicals, both of which affect water quality. Large amounts of water at high pressure are used to convert soil into a slurry form for easy extraction of the target minerals. In the process, increased amounts of soil sediment can enter the nearby creeks and rivers lowering their quality. Chemicals used to collect and extract minerals can also enter and contaminate water.

Miners are usually housed in camps; the domestic and septic waste if not properly disposed, can end up in the waterway, compromising its quality.

Water contaminated with high concentrations of metals, chemicals and other dissolved solids negatively affect surface water quality, aquatic ecosystems, and groundwater quality. Impacts on aquatic life can include death, health or reproductive problems, which would eventually cause a reduction in the number of species present. Impacts on human health can also occur when the heavy metals and chemicals used in mining enter waterways and humans use the water. It enters their central nervous system and their immune systems will be compromised.

There are effective techniques which when used can minimise the environmental impact of mining. One such technique is the use of tailings ponds to impound the “tailings” or mineral wastes, for example sediments that are the end result of mining operations. Sediment is allowed to settle out in the “tailings” pond and only when the water at the top is clear enough is it released into the waterway.

New technologies are being developed to eliminate the use of heavy metals, especially mercury. An example is a screening plant – an apparatus with three parts. The first part washes, tumbles and removes the oversized material. The second part cleans up the material without the use of mercury after which, the ore is reduced to a point where there is only a small amount of impurities remaining. In the final stage, small impurities are further separated to produce pure gold. Another example is the use of coconut activated carbon (coconut shells that are reduced to charcoal in a kiln); a very dilute solution of cyanide would be passed through a charcoal – filled tank to extract gold. Gold adsorbs or “clings” on the activated carbon and is recovered from the carbon by using a hot caustic aqueous cyanide solution.


Agriculture is important to our country’s economy and to feed our people. It is a water intensive activity as water is critical for irrigation of crops and for the rearing animals as well as food hygiene. Agriculture also impacts on water quality. Chemical used in agriculture such as, pesticides and fertilisers eventually find their way into our waterways, making them polluted. Excessive amounts of “nutrients” from nitrate and phosphate fertilisers and cause algal blooms which decrease the amount of oxygen in water and causing fish and other aquatic animals to perish. Excessive amounts of animal waste have the same effect on waterways in addition to introducing harmful bacteria that can cause the spread of diseases to humans and animals alike.

To minimise the impact of agriculture on our water resources, organic fertilisers such as compost can be used to supplementing fertilisers. Compost is formed from the decay of leaves, fruit and vegetable skins and animal manure. To reduce the use of pesticides, biological methods – natural predators can be used to control pests. A simple step to reducing the quantity of “nutrients” and pesticides entering waterways is to ensure that fertilisers and pesticides are used according to manufacturer’s specifications and not in excess. Also research needs to be done on obtaining optimum yield with minimum amounts of these chemicals – this will save money and the environment.

Proper water management is vital to reducing water used for irrigation. Technology exists that that can slowly administer water to crops so that none is wasted as runoff. Research needs to be done on their application in our particular setting. Also research could inform farmers on the minimum amounts of water that would give maximum yield and on the best time of the day to water specific crops.

Technology and information can improve the management of water use and water quality. However, equally important is participation of persons involved in the economic activities that utilise and impact on our water resources.

You can share your ideas and questions by sending letters to: “Our Earth, Our Environment”, C/O EIT Division, Environmental Protection Agency, Ganges Street, Sophia, Georgetown, or email us at:

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International Day for Disaster Reduction: Resilience is for Life

EPA1All across the globe, countries face the possibility of being hit by natural disasters such as flooding, hurricanes, earthquakes, landslides, among others. These disasters, especially those of a high magnitude, have serious effects on a country’s health, infrastructure, and economy. Therefore, being ready for such events is vital to protecting a country’s resources, especially its human resources.

In order to promote a global culture of disaster reduction, including disaster prevention, mitigation and preparedness, the United Nations (UN) General Assembly has designated October 13 as the International Day for Disaster Reduction (IDDR). It is a day to celebrate how people and communities are reducing their risk to disasters and raising awareness about the importance of disaster risk reduction.

Leading up to the World Conference for Disaster Reduction in 2015, the Step Up initiative was launched in 2011, focusing on particular groups and how they can be involved in disaster risk reduction for each year’s celebration from 2011 to 2015. Therefore, this year’s theme: “Resilience is for Life”, focuses on the ageing population. It highlights the need for a more inclusive approach for older people in disaster risk reduction and recognises the critical role they can play in being ready for disasters through their experience and knowledge.

When planning for disasters, considering the elderly is important because older people are at an increased risk of being affected by any disaster that affects an area. Some of the risks that the elderly face in a disaster are:

Adapting to changes – elderly persons may be prone to developing additional health problems during disasters, eg,, even small changes in hydration or nutrition can have major impacts on older people pushing them beyond their limits.

The elderly may be separated from caregivers or their caregivers may be injured or killed during a disaster.

Because of their inability to move freely, older people may find themselves unable to access health-care services, as well as other essential services such as food, water, shelter and latrines.

Since the elderly face heightened risks during disasters, it is important to do the following when preparing an Emergency Response Plan:

Carry out a needs assessment to identify those at risk, noting where they live, their specific needs and how they can be addressed.

Ensure transport, emergency shelter and alert or warning systems and processes are accessible.

Train service providers and emergency responders to be aware of specific needs and vulnerabilities.

Most importantly, the elderly should be involved in planning processes and preparedness activities since they would have local knowledge and experience, which can be harnessed for disaster risk management. Since they are well-respected in the community, they will also be in a position to influence decisions and help in conflict resolution processes.

You can share your ideas and questions by sending letters to: “Our Earth, Our Environment”, C/O EIT Division, Environmental Protection Agency, Ganges Street, Sophia, Georgetown or email us at

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Managing electronic wastes

epa_1Technological advancement has improved greatly over the past years. We have gone from TDMA phones to smartphones such as BlackBerry and iPhone; from desktop computers to laptops and tablets. Life today seems impossible without flat screen televisions, mp3 players, i-pods, and similar gadgets. But have you ever stopped to consider what happens to the older models of these and other electronics that we no longer use? Well, they all contribute to electronic waste or e-waste.

The Environmental Protection Agency, recognising that e-waste is on the increase in Guyana, has developed environmental guidelines for its management. E-waste consists of discarded electrical or electronic devices: everything from battery operated toys and hair dryers all the way up to computers and other circuit board containing equipment.

While we might not notice it, electronics are very dangerous when released into the environment. We might only see the outer shell of these products, but within their casing are circuit boards, wiring and electrical connections that make the device actually function. These can pose problems to the environment and human health, since they contain harmful chemicals, which can leak and contaminate the immediate environment in which they are disposed.

Some of the materials found in these appliances include:

* Mercury: found in fluorescent tubes, mechanical doorbells, thermostats and flat screen monitors. Health effects include sensory impairment, dermatitis, memory loss, and muscle weakness. Environmental effects in animals include death, reduced fertility, slower growth and development.

* Sulphur: found in lead-acid batteries. Health effects include liver damage, kidney damage, heart damage, and eye and throat irritation. When released into the environment, it can create sulphuric acid – as avery strong acid, this is corrosive and can affect soil and water organisms and react with other compounds in the environment and release noxious gases.

* Cadmium: the most common form of cadmium is found in nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries. These batteries tend to contain between six to 18 per cent cadmium. When not properly recycled, it can leach into the soil, harming micro-organisms and disrupting the soil ecosystem. In humans, it affects the body’s ability to metabolise calcium, leading to bone pain and severely weakened, fragile bones.

EPA_2* Lead: used for solder, and can be found in CRT monitors (television and computer), lead-acid batteries and some formulations of PVC. When released into the environment, lead accumulates in the soil and is absorbed by plants. Lead poisoning can cause various health problems including the impairment of the brain’s thought and speech related functions; eventually, lead exposure can cause paralysis, coma and death.

* Copper: found in the wiring of almost all appliances. It can cause irritation of the throat and lungs and affect the liver, kidneys and other body systems.

* Arsenic: often found in circuit boards. May disrupt cell communication and interfere with the triggers that cause cells to grow, possibly contributing to heart disease, cancer and diabetes if someone is exposed over a long time to low doses.

Good e-waste management practices

To reduce the buildup of e-wastes in the environment, the 3 R’s principles of waste management are recommended: Reduce, Reuse and Recycle.

* Reduce the amount of e-waste you generate by being smart in your purchasing of gadgets – buy only what you need.

* Reuse electronic equipment which is still functioning, by donating or selling it to someone else. Some parts can also be used to assemble new computers, or in construction and flatware.

* Recycle components that cannot be repaired – where facilities exist.

In a following article we will examine the management of e-wastes in more detail.

You can share ideas and questions by sending letters to: “Our Earth, Our Environment”, c/o EIT Division, Environmental Protection Agency, Ganges Street, Sophia, Georgetown or email

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International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer 2014

epa_1The United Nations International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer is celebrated around the world, on September 16, each year. This year’s theme is “Ozone Layer Protection: The Mission Goes On.” Almost a generation ago (1987), the Montreal Protocol, an international treaty, was signed by many countries to protect the Ozone Layer and eliminate the use of ozone depleting substances. The commemoration around the world offers an opportunity to focus attention and action at the global, regional and national levels on the protection of the ozone layer.

The Ozone Layer

The Ozone Layer is a thin protective layer of naturally occurring gas – ozone, comprising three atoms of oxygen found about 10-50 kilometres above the Earth’s surface that protects us from the harmful ultraviolet radiation or UV-B rays of sun. Scientists in the 1970s discovered that the ozone layer was thinning as a result of the release of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), consequently, the Ozone Hole developed. In 1985, nations around the world convened at Vienna, Austria, in an attempt to develop a framework for cooperative activities to protect the Ozone Layer. This signed agreement became known as the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer.

Ozone Layer Protection – A success story

Earth’s Ozone Layer may be on the path to recovery. Scientists have found that the concentrated, international action against ozone depleting substances has put our ozone back on track to regeneration. Satellites observed the largest ozone hole over Antarctica in 2006. Purple and blue represent areas of low ozone concentrations in the atmosphere; yellow and red are areas of higher concentrations.

The stratospheric Ozone Layer is a fragile shield of gas that protects our planet from the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun. Without action during the Montreal Protocol, atmospheric levels of ozone-depleting substances could have increased tenfold by 2050, which would have led to about two million cases of skin cancer annually by 2030.

Now, it seems as if this won’t be in our Earth’s future. The phase-out of ozone depleting substances has had an effect. Yet, there are still challenges ahead: it turns out that some replacement substances are potent greenhouse gases (GHGs), which can be detrimental to our world’s climate.

Though the global cooperative efforts of countries, industries, communities and individuals are contributing to the “mending” of the ozone hole, as this year theme says “The Mission Goes On”.

Why care about the Ozone Layer?

  • The Ozone Layer acts as an atmospheric shield. All life on Earth depends on its protection from the lethal levels of ultraviolet radiation produced by the sun.

  • It can result in increased incidence of skin cancer, eye and immune system damage.

• Declines in crop yields of up to 50 per cent in some countries have been linked to increased amounts of incoming UV radiation. A thinner Ozone Layer is also a factor in the declining concentrations of phytoplankton that support aquatic food webs.

• Products emitting ozone-depleting substances are still produced and consumed throughout the world.

• Many ozone-depleting substances remain active in the atmosphere for 50 to 100 years.

• Most ozone-depleting substances are also greenhouse gases eg: CFCs

What can we do?

On this special day, primary and secondary school educators throughout the world are encouraged to organise classroom activities that focus on topics related to the Ozone Layer, climate change and ozone depletion

While the vast majority of ozone-depleting substances is either industrial or commercial, individuals can help in the following ways:

• Buy air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment that do not use HCFCs as refrigerant.

• Buy aerosol products that do not use HCFCs or CFCs as propellants.

• Conduct regular inspection and maintenance of air-conditioning and refrigeration appliances to prevent and minimise refrigerant leakage.

• When motor vehicle air-conditioners need servicing, make sure that the refrigerants are properly recovered and recycled instead of being vented to the atmosphere.

Human activities have significant effects on the environment, one of which is the depleting of the Ozone Layer. It’s time for us to reduce this contribution.

“The environment is everybody’s business”


You can share your ideas and questions by sending letters to: “Our Earth, Our Environment”, C/O EIT Division, Environmental Protection Agency, Ganges Street, Sophia, Georgetown, or email us at:

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International Coastal Cleanup 2014

epa_1International Coastal Cleanup (ICC) is a worldwide event initiated by Ocean Conservancy in 1986. It is celebrated on the third Saturday of September each year. Its aim is to engage citizens to remove trash and debris from beaches and waterways all around world, identify the sources and change the behavioural patterns that contribute to pollution. This year, ICC will be celebrated on September 20 under the theme “Turning the Tide on Trash.”

Where does the marine litter come from?

* Recreational activities

* Rubbish from fishing boat, ferry, boat/vessel operations

* Dumping activities such as from landfill site, household and construction.

* Refuse from medical health and personal hygiene products

epa_2Why is the problem so bad?

* People do not bother to throw rubbish into bins properly.

* Visitors to sea walls or picnic site left their food packages, bottles and forks behind without proper disposal.

* Rubbish throwing out from the boats because it is easier than bringing them ashore for proper disposal.

* Construction workers leaving rubbish and dumping refuse on reclamation and building sites.

* Restaurant operators not disposing of their waste properly.

Individual action

* Be responsible for the rubbish you generate. Don’t throw the rubbish in the sea when you are on a boat or at the sea wall. Take your rubbish and dispose of it properly in bins.

* In order to reduce the waste, you should support recycling

* Take part in the annual International Coastal Cleanup

Government action

* With the new Litter Enforcement Regulations persons can and will be fined for littering. Litter wardens are placed around the city to find and charge these “litter bugs” – they will soon be placed in other regions.

* Under the litter regulations it is an offence to litter in a public place or from a moving vehicle unto a public place. An individual found committing such acts will be fined $50,000 and in case of with company or organisation $100,000

Marine litter is a serious and worsening problem in marine and coastal environments worldwide. Sea turtles, which are one of the oldest creatures on Earth are imperiled. They are very susceptible to a range of threats posed by plastics and other trash than any other marine animal. When plastic blows, washes, or is dumped into the sea, it may remain intact for decades. However when it breaks down, it is only into smaller pieces. These plastic pieces are mistaken by marine wildlife for food and this leads to choking or strangulation.

During the International Coastal Cleanup, volunteers do their part to clean up plastic and other trash on the coast (seawall). In doing so, they raise awareness of the persistent problem of trash generated by a throwaway society, and encourage people to make better choices.


You can share your ideas and questions by sending letters to: “Our Earth, Our Environment”, C/O EIT Division, Environmental Protection Agency, Ganges Street, Sophia, Georgetown, or email us at:

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Protected areas of Guyana

35732-569-1(10)A protected area is an area of land which has been legally protected to preserve its resources, natural beauty or biological diversity or “biodiversity”.

The reasons for having a protected area are to conserve our natural and cultural resources and to protect important habitats and species for long term benefits for all Guyanese and the world.

Types of protected areas

These include:

Nature Reserve/ Wilderness Area − Managed for science or wilderness protection.

National Park − Managed for ecosystem protection and recreation.

Natural Monument − Managed for conservation of specific natural features.

Habitat/ Species Management Area − Managed for conservation through management intervention.

36587690Protected Landscape/ Seascape − Managed for landscape/ seascape conservation and recreation.

Managed Resource Protected Area − Managed for sustainable use of natural ecosystem.

Each type of protected area has different goals and ways of managing the unique resources they protect. Sometimes a protected area will be divided into sections or zones and each has its own type of rules and management. Protected areas balance the needs of wildlife and the needs of those persons who live nearby. Each should have enough space and resources to survive and prosper.

The protected areas of Guyana are:

adventures-guyana-walkway-bridgeKanuku Mountains

The Kanuku Mountains are located in the Rupununi Savannahs in southwestern Guyana and is one of the most ecologically diverse areas in the country. The Eastern Kanuku Mountains and the Western Kanuku Mountains are separated by the Rupununi River.

Healthy populations of many globally important species can be found in and around the mountains. The lowland forests sustain 60 per cent of all the known bird species in Guyana. Around 150 mammal species, or 80 per cent of all mammals found in Guyana, live in the Kanuku Mountains.


This 360,000 hectares protected area is found in the centre of Guyana. Approximately half is a wilderness preserve with the remainder being used for sustainable utilisation of resources. The Iwokrama Mountains constitute the principal geological features of the Iwokrama forest. They rise 800 metres above the surrounding plain. The mountains are underlain by hard granites and softer volcanic rocks.


Kaieteur National Park

Kaieteur National Park was officially established as a protected area in 1929 by the British Commonwealth and is currently one of Guyana’s protected areas. As a result of the high biodiversity and endemic flora and fauna, the area has a long and rich tradition of scientific investigation. Kaieteur also has an equally long tradition of visitation, with the primary attraction being the 741 foot waterfall, one of the highest in the Western Hemisphere. In addition, the area has unique geological attractions as well as large areas of primary tropical rainforest directly accessible from the core park area.

Shell Beach

Shell Beach was designated a protected area with the passage of the Protected Areas Act of 2011. The Shell Beach Protected Area (SBPA) is located in the north-west part of Guyana, in Region One, stretching over 120 kilometres of beach and mudflats. It covers an approximate area of 304,074.7 acres (123,055.2 hectares). It is bound, running south-east to north west, by the Moruca, Barabara, Biara, Baramani, and Waini rivers and is bound to the northeast by the Atlantic Ocean. It is categorised as an IUCN Category VI – Managed Resource Protected Area.

Guyana benefits from protected areas whereby its natural and cultural heritage will be conserved for Guyanese. There are many species of plants and animals with very valuable medicinal properties that have not been explored. It is quite possible that the cure for now incurable diseases may be developed from our forest. Therefore, it is essential that we protect our biodiversity – ecosystems and the animals and plants they support.

You can share your ideas and questions by sending letters to: “Our Earth, Our Environment”, C/O EIT Division, Environmental Protection Agency, Ganges Street, Sophia, Georgetown, or email us at:

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Wildlife and ecotourism

adventures-guyana-walkway-bridgeWildlife is any non-cultivated or non-domestic organism in the kingdom of animals, plants, protista[SR1], prokaryota and fungi.

Ecotourism is the “responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people. It is to allow for people to enjoy and appreciate nature, promote conservation, have a low visitor impact and provide for beneficially active socio-economic involvement of local peoples.”

Boasting some 75 per cent pristine rainforest, Guyana is a collective of complex biomes of[SR2] more than 8000 species. Guyana is a biologically diverse country where an abundance of wildlife can be discovered especially in pristine areas such as Kaieteur National Parks, Kanuku Mountains, Shell Beach and Iwokrama Rainforest Reserve among others.

Why conserve and

protect our wildlife?

Cango-Wildlife-Ranch-CollageWe are all connected in a chain and each link is important to the other for survival. The forest provides food (wildlife), medicine, building materials, etc, so loss of the forest or animals that live in it means loss of natural habits and ecosystems, ecotourism, carbon sinks, natural air and water purifiers and materials for building and construction.

With advances in transportation and information technology, even the most remote places on Earth are within reach of the traveller. In fact, tourism is now the world’s largest industry, with nature tourism the fastest growing segment.

Most tourism in natural areas today is not ecotourism and is not, therefore, sustainable. Ecotourism is distinguished by its emphasis on conservation, education, traveller responsibility and active community participation. Specifically, ecotourism possesses the following characteristics:

* Conscientious, low-impact visitor behaviour

* Sensitivity towards, and appreciation of, local cultures and biodiversity

* Support for local conservation efforts

* Sustainable benefits to local communities

* Local participation in decision-making

* Educational components for both the traveller and local communities

Increased tourism to sensitive natural areas without appropriate planning and management can threaten the integrity of ecosystems and local cultures. The increase of visitors to ecologically sensitive areas can lead to significant environmental degradation. Likewise, local communities and indigenous cultures can be harmed in numerous ways by an influx of foreign visitors and wealth. Additionally, fluctuations in climate, currency exchange rates, and political and social conditions can make over-dependence upon tourism a risky business.

However, this same growth creates significant opportunities for both conservation and local communities. Ecotourism can provide much-needed revenues for the protection of national parks and other natural areas – revenues that might not be available from other sources.

Additionally, ecotourism can provide a viable economic development alternative for local communities with few other income-generating options. Moreover, ecotourism can increase the level of education and activism among travellers, making them more enthusiastic and effective agents of conservation.

We all want to experience nature and the world, but we should try to do so in a way that doesn’t impact the natural environment.


You can share your ideas and questions by sending letters to: “Our Earth, Our Environment”, C/O EIT Division, Environmental Protection Agency, Ganges Street, Sophia, Georgetown, or email us at:

[SR1]common name in brackets e.g. single-celled organism; bacteria etc.

[SR2]see previous comment

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Youths and the environment

children-and-youth2The involvement of today’s youth in decision-making and programme implementation for environment and development is critical to the long-term success of a country.

Globally, youths have both special concerns and special responsibilities in relation to the environment. In today’s world, a number of environmental risks and hazards disproportionately affect young people, who have to live for an extended period with the deteriorating environment bequeathed to them by earlier generations. As such, young people will be compelled to engage in new forms of action and activism that will generate effective responses to ecological challenges.

Young people constitute a large part of the world’s population. Unfortunately, in some parts of the world, many, especially young children, are particularly vulnerable to environmental risks associated with, for example, access to clean and safe drinking water. It is also recognised that young people will have to live longer with the consequences of current environmental decisions than will their elders. Future generations will also be affected by these decisions and the extent to which they have addressed concerns such as the depletion of resources, the loss of biodiversity, and long-lived radioactive wastes.

epa_2Aside from having a greater stake in the more distant future, young people are especially well-placed to promote environmental awareness simply because they often have better access to information about the environment than do their elders. In part, this is a matter of having been exposed to more environmental education in schools or clubs. Aside from exposure in formal education, youths have lived all their lives in an era in which environmental issues have loomed large. Also, established anti-ecological ways of thinking and behaving are not ingrained in young people, and they can introduce fresh ideas and outlooks to issues.

Environmental education has an important role to play in the promotion of environmental awareness. It should be emphasised that environmental education, in its broadest and perhaps most important sense, is not formal schooling. Rather, it is a process of social learning in which young people and others are engaged in generating and transmitting knowledge as well as receiving it.

We all can take simple steps by being “eco”. We can reduce waste by ordering the right amount of food since much food is wasted each year. We can also reuse by transforming waste materials into practical and sustainable products and we can also recycle to reduce the environmental impact of waste disposal and conserve our natural resources.



You can share your ideas and questions by sending letters to: “Our Earth, Our Environment”, C/O EIT Division, Environmental Protection Agency, Ganges Street, Sophia, Georgetown, or email us at:

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Biodiversity Research in Guyana

EPAResearch is one of the priority areas identified in the National Biodiversity Action Plan in order to generate data on Guyana’s biological resources for sustainable management. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for coordinating research activities in conservation and protection of biodiversity.

In order to conduct biodiversity research in Guyana, a Research Permit must be acquired from the EPA. Here is the application process for biodiversity research:

 An application form along with supporting documents and application fee of US$75 must be submitted to the EPA three months before the commencement date of the research. Applications made in less than three months, require a late application fee of US$40.

Applications, along with supporting documents, must be submitted through the National Biodiversity Research Information System (NBRIS), which is an EPA initiative that was launched in August 2013.

The NBRIS consist of two database management applications; the WEB and LAN Modules.

The objectives of the web-based module are as follows:

* Facilitate electronic submission (ie, via electronic forms) of research applications for approval by the EPA;

* Facilitate enquiries by prospective researchers on the status of the application;

* Facilitate comments/suggestions made by other stakeholders reviewing the application;

* Allow researchers to modify and/or resubmit application-related information based on the responses from the EPA and/or stakeholders;

image022The LAN module is located on a server located within the EPA office. The LAN module is updated by the web-based module and is the final repository of all information submitted as part of the research application process. The LAN module is used to monitor all approved research activities most specifically in the following areas:

* Number of specimens taken overseas;

* Number of specimens returned;

* Number of specimens deposited with the competent authority;

* Species studied;

* Duration of research activities;

* Reports submitted by researchers; and

* Reports submitted by local and counterpart agencies.

The application also includes a Document Management System which provides indexed, retrievable electronic storage of all publications, research documents and images such as photos and maps. Information will also be maintained on all previous research activities which will serve as a guideline for reviewing future applications by the same researchers.

After the research is completed, researchers are required to submit a preliminary report, field notes, photographs and recordings to the EPA before they depart Guyana. They are also required to submit a copy of their final report once completed along with any other reports/publications based on the research.

Researchers wishing to export specimens collected under their Research Permit must apply for an Export Permit from the EPA. While the Agency welcomes the opportunity to explore Guyana’s biological resources for informed decision making; measures are put in place to ensure our biological wealth is protected and there are benefits to the country as well.

You can share your ideas and questions by sending letters to: “Our Earth, Our Environment”, C/O EIT Division, Environmental Protection Agency, Ganges Street, Sophia, Georgetown, or email us at:

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